Do STEM teachers have the potential to become leaders in online education?


  • Hsin-Yi Chiu National Kaohsiung Normal University
  • Chia-ju Liu National Kaohsiung Normal University



characteristics of STEM teachers, On-line teaching, STEM teacher


STEM teachers would need to be familiar with the use of technology in the classroom and in fact they appeared to find online teaching very simple and natural. We have an opportunity to get a clearer idea of the challenges that STEM teachers faced as they transitioned from FTF to the online teaching precipitated by the COVID-19 epidemic, how well they were able to respond, and what changes were implemented. A qualitative design, with a case study approach, was used to find out how well they responded and what necessary changes had needed to be implemented. Nine STEM teachers took part in this study and the interview questions used by Sintema were modified and used as the main research tool (2020). Interviews were carried out in three steps. The data were divided into four stages: "#1 preparation time," "#2 early phase," "#3 late phase," and "#4 resumption of face-to-face teaching." In this study all the changes in method and characteristics elicited by online teaching of STEM were compared with those in use before the advent of large-scale online teaching. We uncovered many of the difficulties and concerns experienced by teachers who were under pressure to make the online courses significant in a short period of time. The study also discovered that the challenges that STEM teachers face are quite complex and diverse, and that STEM teachers' online teaching experiences can indeed become an important reference for teachers of other disciplines.


Abbitt, J. T. (2011). Measuring technological pedagogical content knowledge in preservice teacher education: A review of current methods and instruments. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(4), 281-300.

Agarwal, S., & Kaushik, J. S. (2020). Student’s perception of online learning during COVID pandemic. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87(7), 554.

Ali, W. (2020). Online and remote learning in higher education institutes: A necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Higher education studies, 10(3), 16-25.

Amunga, J. (2021). Leveraging technology to enhance STEM education amidst the Covid-19 pandemic: An overview of pertinent concerns. Technium Soc. Sci. J., 18, 40.

Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: students' perspectives. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 2(1), 45-51. 2020261309

Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2008). TPCK in pre-service teacher education: Preparing primary education students to teach with technology. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City, NY.

Asempapa, R., Morales, A., & Agili, S. (2021). A quantitative analysis of a customized peer mentoring program with STEM underrepresented students. Journal of Research in STEM Education, 7(1), 1-20.

Aykan, A., & Yildirim, B. (2021). The Integration of a lesson study model into distance STEM education during the covid-19 pandemic: Teachers’ views and practice. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1-29.

Caton, J. C. (2021). Don't run out of STEAM! barriers to a transdisciplinary learning approach. Journal of STEM Teacher Education, 56(1), 4.

Chen, C., Sonnert, G., Sadler, P. M., Sasselov, D., & Fredericks, C. (2020). The impact of student misconceptions on student persistence in a MOOC. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 57(6), 879-910.

Cheng, S. C., Chang, Y. C., Chiang, Y. L. F., Chien, Y. C., Cheng, M., Yang, C. H., ... & Hsu, Y. N. (2020). First case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 119(3), 747-751.

Crawford B. A. (2012) Moving the essence of inquiry into the classroom: engaging teachers and students in authentic science. Tan K., Kim M. (eds) Issues and Challenges in Science Education Research. Springer.

Creswell, J. W., & Guetterman, T. C. (2019). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson.

Crowe, S., Cresswell, K., Robertson, A., Huby, G., Avery, A., & Sheikh, A. (2011). The case study approach. BMC medical research methodology, 11(1), 1-9.

DeCoito, I., & Estaiteyeh, M. (2022). Transitioning to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: An exploration of STEM teachers’ views, successes, and challenges. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 31(3), 340-356.

Denton, M., & Borrego, M. (2021). Funds of knowledge in STEM Education: A scoping review. Studies in Engineering Education, 1(2).

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of educational technology systems, 49(1), 5-22.

Donitsa-Schmidt, S., & Ramot, R. (2020). Opportunities and challenges: teacher education in Israel in the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 586-595.

Evagorou, M., & Nisiforou, E. (2020). Engaging pre-service teachers in an online STEM fair during COVID-19. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 179-186.

Iswadi, I., Syukri, M., Soewarno, S., Yulisman, H., & Nurina, C. I. E. (2020). A systematic literature review of science teachers’ TPACK related to STEM in developing a TPACK-STEM scale. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1460. 10.1088/1742-6596/1460/1/012105

Kahlke, R. M. (2014). Generic qualitative approaches: Pitfalls and benefits of methodological mixology. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 13(1), 37-52.

Kao, C. P., Wu, Y. T., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Elementary school teachers’ motivation toward web-based professional development, and the relationship with Internet self-efficacy and belief about web-based learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 406-415.

Karimi, H., & Pina, A. (2021). Strategically addressing the soft skills gap among STEM undergraduates. Journal of Research in STEM Education, 7(1), 21-46.

Lewis, T. (2005). Coming to terms with engineering design as content. Journal of Technology Education, 16(2).

Liguori, E., & Winkler, C. (2020). From offline to online: Challenges and opportunities for entrepreneurship education following the COVID-19 pandemic. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagog, 3(4) 346-351.

Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources, and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In Examining pedagogical content knowledge (pp. 95-132). Springer.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press.

Niess, M. L., Ronau, R. N., Shafer, K. G., Driskell, S. O., Harper, S. R., Johnston, C.,…Kersaint, G. (2009). Mathematics teacher TPACK standards and development model. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 4-24. Retrieved from

Peräkylä, A. (2005). Patients’ responses to interpretations: A dialogue between conversation analysis and psychoanalytic theory. Communication & Medicine, 2(2), 163-176.

Polat, M. (2022). A case study of preservice teachers' classroom management dilemma in a climate of uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 10(1), 90-102.

Schmid, M., Brianza, E., ? Petko, D. (2021). Self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of pre-service teachers in relation to digital technology use in lesson plans. Computers in Human Behavior, 115, 1-12.

Serhan, D. (2020). Transitioning from face-to-face to remote learning: Students’ attitudes and perceptions of using Zoom during COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(4), 335-342.

Sintema, E. J. (2020). Effect of COVID-19 on the performance of grade 12 students: Implications for STEM education. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(7), em1851.

Taiwan Network Information Association. (2022). The 2022 Taiwan internet report.

Verma, G., Campbell, T., Melville, W., & Park, B. Y. (2020). Science teacher education in the times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of science teacher education, 31(5), 483-490.

Yadav, A., Mayfield, C., Zhou, N., Hambrusch, S., & Korb, J. T. (2014). Computational thinking in elementary and secondary teacher education. ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), 14(1), 1-16.

Zainal, A., Herliani, R., Nurhayani, U., & Harahap, K. (2022, January). Academic dishonesty and e-learning dilemma: conceptual insight and implication for accounting educators. In 2nd International Conference of Strategic Issues on Economics, Business and, Education (ICoSIEBE 2021) (pp. 336-339). Atlantis Press.




How to Cite

Chiu, H.-Y., & Liu, C.- ju. (2023). Do STEM teachers have the potential to become leaders in online education?. Journal of Research in STEM Education, 9(1), 1–19.